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Annual Ryegrass – the Germ Seed of Cover Crop Adoption in the US – Part 19.

Mentorship and Inventiveness

Marc Bremer, 38, is a fourth-generation family farmer from Metropolis, Illinois, whose story unifies two things that characterize the growth of cover crops in the modern era. The first is the importance of mentorship. The second is the role of “ah ha” moments in our lives, which continue to fuel enthusiasm for progress and productivity in agriculture.

In Marc’s case, as with others in this 25th anniversary tribute to annual ryegrass as a cover crop, Mike Plumer’s influence as a teacher has been crucial. And, as for those “ah-ha” moments, you’ve probably come to understand that they occur in every life and every generation, often at the crossroads of challenge and opportunity.

Marc Bremer’s grandfather started a farm and cattle breeding business with his brother after WW II, on what grew to 600 acres. His contribution to the industry included the advancement of cattle breeding practices. Likewise, Marc’s father (David) and grandfather were early adopters of no-till, working with the nearby Illinois Extension at Dixon Springs. Marc’s contributions include the widespread use of cover crops, annual ryegrass in particular, and how it has compounded the farm’s success.

Bremer Brothers Farm seems wedded to the adage, “Work smarter, not harder.” Marc’s great grandfather did that by doing his homework, becoming an avid record keeper, and using that data to drive decisions. “After purchasing their first Angus livestock in the 1950s,” Marc said, “we haven’t bought another female since. My dad was working on a master’s degree in genetics from the University of New Mexico when granddad passed away, prompting dad to come back to the farming operation.” His academic work clearly complemented that which the preceding generations had put to work. The science of breeding, combined with their nutrient-rich, efficient feeding system, has made their herd one of consistent quality and value, decade after decade.

No photo description available.

Marc’s grandfather decided in the mid-1960s that no-till would benefit the soil and keep it in place. “With support from Dixon Springs Extension researchers, grandad started using the no-till planting system to great effect,” Marc continued, “and purchased a 6-row Allis Chalmers, which was among the first commercially-available no-till planters. My dad followed suit, continuing to graze crop stubble on our corn and bean acres after harvest.  He also started experimenting with cover crops in the 90s, then introduced grazing onto those acres.”

Mike Plumer was a friend of the Extension Agent working in that part of Illinois during those years and became friends with the Bremer’s. That friendship extended to the next generation when, in the early 2000s, Mike visited Marc in Wyoming to hunt antelope on the ranch where Marc worked as a ranch hand and mechanic. In order to be closer to family and move into leadership on Bremer Brothers Farm, Marc moved back to Metropolis in 2010.

By then, Mike had left the university and started a consulting business. By then, he had learned about annual ryegrass and had helped others in southern Illinois add cover crops to their operations. By then, he had partnered with the Oregon Ryegrass Commission and was overseeing research trials in multiple Midwest locations. Mike became more active as an educator as well, advising famers about annual ryegrass at national ag shows and field day demonstrations.

Marc embraced cover crops quickly and, like his father before him, invested in equipment “to expand the farm without more land. We just learned to do better with the 900 acres we had,” he said. After a couple of years using a 15’ Great Plains drill, he purchased a 40’ drill that is pulled behind their 320 hp Cat Challenger on tracks.  From the early days, towing a 6-row planter, the Bremer’s have now graduated to a 24-row Kenzi planter.

“It may have been as late as 2011 that Mike convinced me to use annual ryegrass because, by then, he understood that it broke up fragipan soil which is prevalent in this part of the country,” Marc said.

“I didn’t introduce annual ryegrass to the whole farm right away,” he added. “But during the 2012 drought, we saw such a dramatic difference between acres planted in annual ryegrass, versus plain no-till or with cereal rye, that we were convinced.”

The Bremer’s experimented too with whether livestock and grazing the cover crop would affect the growth of annual ryegrass roots. “We brought out a 4’ soil probe and it looked like grazing didn’t impact root growth at all. Compared to neighboring property with no cover crops, it appears that annual ryegrass gradually gets rid of fragipan, does a better job of suppressing weeds and, by having cattle grazing the pastures, there are fewer slugs and voles to contend with.”

In a recent study concluded by the University of Kentucky (Lloyd Murdock), Bremer’s farm was shown to have gained more than 6 inches of new soil in seven years, simply by having annual ryegrass as a cover crop, slowly reclaiming the layer occupied by the otherwise impenetrable fragipan. In the same period, the amount of organic matter increased from 2.0 to 3.5 percent.

Another recent “ah ha” for Marc was that when he terminated the cover crop early in the spring, as he’d been strongly advised to, the fields would remain wet and prolong the planting date of corn or beans. He thought if he let the cover crops grow later, it would allow earlier planting. “I’ve experimented with planting corn into cereal rye as tall as 7’ and annual ryegrass as high as 4 ½ feet. Then I’ll come back and terminate the cover crop, and for the most part it still kills nicely,” he said. “I figure that even if there is some residual seed from the cover crop, it will lay dormant under the corn until fall or can be controlled with a post application of herbicide, which is fine too.”

Bremer Brothers Farm is part of the new round of research mentioned in the last chapter, headed by USDA/Ag Research Service in Iowa. The research at Bremer’s has two aspects: first, how the chemicals exuded by annual ryegrass roots degrade fragipan, and secondly, studying the how grazing cattle on cover crop acreage affects soil hydrology. “This research has widespread value for agriculture,” Marc said, “to better understand nutrient cycling, and how soil holds moisture.”

Marc and his wife have three children, a daughter and two sons. One of the gifts Marc is preparing for them, should they opt to take the farm into the next generation, is that the land is now producing value 11 months of the year, rather than the five or six months of many neighbors. “With cover crops and grazing cattle, the land is more productive, and the soil is healthier,” he said. “Livestock and cash crops work so well together. Annual ryegrass as a cover crop enriches the soil, gets rid of compaction, and improves the water carrying capacity of the soil. Cattle break down crop residue, provide nutrient-rich manure and get rid of voles and slugs. Voles and slugs, as it turns out, can’t bench-press a cow,” he added with a laugh.

“When I arrived from Wyoming in 2010, we had 90 cow/calf pairs and 210 in inventory. To support that herd, we were feeding them 100 tons of hay a year. Today, we have about 110 cow/calf pairs and 275 in inventory. But we’re feeding them less than 90 tons of hay. The difference is that they’re getting fed by grazing cover crops. We’re more profitable, the soil is healthier, and our corn and bean yields are higher. Like my dad and granddad said, ‘You don’t necessarily have to buy more land to expand your business.’”

Annual Ryegrass – the Germ Seed of Cover Crop Adoption in the US Part 18

The Next Generation of Innovators in Agriculture

“There is no known abatement of fragipan,” said Dr. Phillips Phillips, a researcher with the USDA’s Agriculture Research Service (ARS) in Ames, Iowa. “Until now, that is,” she added. “Annual ryegrass is a good one, because the chemicals in ryegrass roots break down fragipan.”

Phillips and the congressionally-funded ARS are delving deeper into the mystery of why annual ryegrass has this effect on fragipan. She said there are 50 million acres of agricultural crop land impacted by fragipan in the U.S. alone. “And fragipans are a problem around the globe,” she added.

Phillips and colleagues have proposed work to follow that of Lloyd Murdock, who for the past decade has been documenting and testing the effect of annual ryegrass on fragipan in laboratory settings and in the field. Murdock’s research at the University of Kentucky found that a chemical exudate from ryegrass roots is the reason. Specifically, the chemical excretion from annual ryegrass roots systematically changes the chemistry and make-up of that compacted soil, effectively reducing the presence of fragipan. In the following graph, taken from Murdock’s study, you can see how annual ryegrass reduced the depth of fragipan and increased the depth of healthy soil in five locations in two Midwestern states.

Phillips is leading a five-year study on annual ryegrass’ effects and how to augment them. “A key part of our research will quantify how annual ryegrass, used as a cover crop, affects the amount and availability of water in the field,” she said. “By reducing fragipan, we may be improving drainage and thus expanding the window for planting in the springtime,” Phillips added. “And we think that reducing fragipan will make more soil water available during the summer too, by increasing root depth. We want to measure how much more available soil water is present, and whether the crop can put on more leaf area and experience less water stress.”

John Pike, a former University of Illinois ag research manager, will be monitoring the study in Illinois, funded by the Oregon Ryegrass Seed Growers Commission.

“Mike Plumer and other pioneers showed that annual ryegrass can be really useful in Southern Illinois, Missouri, and Kentucky,” Phillips said. “As our weather continues to change, ryegrass could increasingly be seen as a ‘climate adaption tool.’ Specifically,” she explained, “in the Midwest we’re having more rain in the spring, and the rain events are bigger. I hope annual ryegrass’ ability to reduce fragipan will allow more water to be absorbed into the field instead of running off. So, even with more rain, farmers will be able to get into the field in a timely fashion, simply because the water will infiltrate more quickly rather than pooling or creating erosion.”

“Additionally,” Phillips continued, “the month of July in the Midwest is becoming hotter and dryer than in the past. July is when the corn most needs moisture. Annual ryegrass, by helping to create deeper soils may be able to make up for that reduced precipitation.”

Phillips’s colleague, Dr. Dan Olk, will lead complementary studies on how annual ryegrass chemically degrades fragipan. Olk, a biochemist, is an expert on humic products, which are derived from young coal deposits and are thought to enhance plant growth. Hypothetically, humic products used in conjunction with annual ryegrass may have a compounding effect on the decay of fragipan and enhancement of crop health. Phillips and Olk will look at samples of fragipan soil collected from Kentucky and Illinois in different stages of degradation. “We want to find out how the chemistry of fragipan changes at different stages of breaking down, and whether humic products change the rate of fragipan disintegration,” Phillips said.

While Phillips is focused on the science and field work, John Pike will also be sharing the educational aspects of the work with a variety of audience, from field day demonstrations to trade shows. Phillips acknowledged the importance of a team approach to this and other projects. “I’m very thankful to those who are partnering with us in our efforts, like John Pike, the Oregon Ryegrass Commission, and Oregon seed growers, who continue their on the ground support for this work.” She also acknowledged Ryan Hayes, an ARS colleague who works on plant breeding at Oregon State University, where she worked before moving to Iowa in 2020.

Some worry about how the adoption of cover cropping and regenerative agriculture will keep expanding, as a generation of cover crop pioneers like Mike Plumer and Lloyd Murdock retire. It is refreshing to see the next generation of growers and scientists, like Phillips, stepping in to develop the place-specific knowledge necessary to make cover cropping work in a challenging environment where it can have the most benefit.

Annual Ryegrass – the Germ Seed of Cover Crop Adoption in the US – Part 17

 Filling Some Legacy Shoes in Cover Crop Research


As a youngster, John Pike watched Mike Plumer excavate a small pit in a cornfield not far from his own family farm in southern Illinois. Plumer, at the time, was an Extension agent at the University of Illinois.  “He was there to demonstrate how the fragipan soil common to southern Illinois prevents healthy root growth and negatively impacts crop yields,” John said. “The pit clearly showed corn roots hitting the fragipan but not penetrating it.”

At the time, Plumer hadn’t discovered how annual ryegrass, used as a cover crop, gradually breaks down fragipan and allows deeper root growth. “But even then, before he made that connection, his curiosity and deep conviction in conservation tillage made a big impression on me,” John added.

That field day demonstration stuck with John as he later attended college and followed in Plumer’s footsteps at the U of Illinois, becoming an Extension agent and later a research agronomist for the Department of Crop Sciences, in charge of research station operations in the southern part of the state. “It was such a pleasure to have the opportunity to know Mike as a friend and to work with him professionally, before and after his retirement,” he said.

John’s career with the university focused on soil fertility, nutrient management, and water quality. Cover crop research became a significant part of that work. When the university shut down four of its research stations, John started his own ag consultancy as a research agronomist. And that, he said, led to “a more flexible and comprehensive range of work,” a lot of which involves working closely with researchers from other universities.

“Universities have historically been a major source of innovation for the ag industry,” John continued. “But with cover crop discoveries, it was largely the reverse, with innovation coming from the field and gradually informing the universities to backfill with research that quantified the benefits.”

He went on to explain why. “Research involving cover crops is not always best suited to the small plot design used on most university farms. Further, as it relates to cover crop research specifically, the typical 3-year funding cycle common to many research programs is not long enough to capture the cumulative impacts of a cover crop system.  The use of annual ryegrass as a cover crop in fragipan soils is an example. While short-term benefits become evident quickly, like erosion control and nitrogen recycling, the impacts of ryegrass on fragipan soils are realized only over a longer timeframe; the effect of annual ryegrass on fragipan becomes pronounced between the third and fifth years, when corn crops show significant gains in rooting depth and yield.  So, funding a 3-year research program might discount the true potential and lose out on some of the most remarkable impacts.” 

Given that the cover crop revolution didn’t start on university farms, it’s more understandable why some professors and Extension researchers were reluctant to sign on as early cover crop advocates. In fact, some actively campaigned against annual ryegrass because they feared the cover crop would create more headaches than benefits.   

The reticence of university researchers, however, did not deter farmers like Junior Upton (Springerton, Illinois) and independent thinkers like Mike Plumer. Their on-farm discoveries of annual ryegrass’ benefits in the mid-1990s won early support from Oregon ryegrass seed growers as well as their Ryegrass Commission. A decade of replicated field trials helped determine which annual ryegrass varieties were the most winter hardy and which management practices were most effective for control of cover crops with herbicides. The trials also attracted media attention and thus increased university interest.

“Farmers change their crop management practices only when the economic benefits can be demonstrated,” said John, who has continued to farm his own acres as well. “Telling them about soil health is secondary to economics. So, when they hear from their neighbor or find out for themselves that cover crops can save you money or boost your profits, they pay attention. Annual ryegrass does that by reducing erosion and compaction, while boosting yields, improving water infiltration, and many other things.”

So as Mike Plumer retired, and passed away shortly thereafter, John has tried to continue some of Mike’s projects and maintain relationships with many of his long-time farmer/collaborators.  “I like to think I’m helping to keep the ball rolling,” he explained, “but it’ll take many more people like me to move the ball as far down the field as Mike did.  I’m just glad to make sure his efforts and interests are continued, as we shared the same interests.”

The Ryegrass Commission has hired John to further Plumer’s work, with Junior Upton and many of the other growers Plumer attracted to cover crop usage. One of those happy customers, Illinois farmer Marc Bremer,  has been using annual ryegrass in rotation between cash crops and grazing cattle for 15 years. On grazed pastures, he’s seen corn yields increase to 230 bushels/acre and beans to 80 bu/ac. John’s research will create data on the further reduction of fragipan on that farm over the next five years, comparing grazed and un-grazed fields using annual ryegrass to other acreage tilled in the old “conventional” way without cover crops.  

In addition, John will be following up with the University of Kentucky, as researcher Lloyd Murdoch heads into retirement. John will further Murdoch’s work and provide crucial location assistance to Dr. Claire Phillips, a scientist working with USDA’s Agricultural Research Service in Ames, Iowa. “I’ll be monitoring their test sites in southern Illinois,” John said, “including acreage owned by Junior Upton.” “We’re placing field sensors to track hydrology in soils affected by fragipan and gathering data on soils freed from compaction by using annual ryegrass,” he explained.

“Water management is critical in our region and, really, in most parts of the world as well.  Reducing runoff, soil erosion and related nutrient loss is a major factor in the efficiency of our mostly unirrigated row-cropping systems,” John added. “Employing annual ryegrass as a component of cover crop programs helps to keep soil in place, improve water infiltration rates and significantly increases the rooting depth limited by fragipan soils.  “This USDA-ARS led research has national implications,” he said, “and will help to further quantify the impact of annual ryegrass on fragipan soils and its relationship to the soil’s ability to hold more available moisture.” 

Soil Management Vs. Nutrient Management

You’ve probably seen this motto: “Feed the Soil, Not Just the Plants!” Doing that helps the soil prosper, and then the crop health and grower’s prosperity grow accordingly. This motto may somewhat represent the tilt towards “regenerative” or “sustainable” agriculture globally.

In the old days, feeding the plant necessary nutrients may have been adequate. But doing that disregards the quality of the soil and, in the long run, impacts the growth of crops and the profitability of the farm.

Here’s a rough definition of soil health, taken from a document at Cornell University: …”the continued capacity of the soil to function as a vital living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals and humans (NRCS, 2012). Characteristics of a healthy soil include good soil tilth, sufficient rooting depth, good water storage and drainage, rich and diverse soil life, stored carbon and an adequate supply of nutrients.”

There are three overlapping elements involved in assessing soil health: its physical nature as well as its biological and chemical properties. Managing nutrients only amounts to paying attention to just one of the three component parts.

In the above graph (developed by Cornell University) you can see a hypothetical analysis of a farm, wherein the chemical elements are all in the “green” or “ok” realm, but the physical and biological aspects are suffering. This is typical of farm acreage that has been in continuous tillage and mono-cropping for decades. So, even with the chemical aspect getting a passing grade, the overall quality of the farm soil is only “medium.” Medium won’t ever give you the best performance.

As the chart shows, some of the aspects of the soil’s physical health include its water carrying capacity, or “infiltration”. It also looks at compaction at the surface and down to about typical plowing depth.

Among the soil properties under the “Biological” heading, the assessment looks at the amount of organic matter, the “Autoclaved Citrate Extractable (ACE) Protein. which indicates the amount of protein-like substances present in the organic matter, the soil’s respiration and the amount of active carbon.

Though it might occur to you that there would be a lot of expense to assessing your fields’ soil health to this extent, agronomists at Cornell would disagree. “Qualitative, on-farm, in-field assessment of soil health does not need to involve special analyses, only the informed observation and interpretation of soil characteristics. This is usually done by visual assessment, but the smell and feel of soil may also be involved. Field test kits for measuring several indicators are also available (e.g. NRCS soil quality test kit).

The article goes on to say that, “While this approach is more subjective and therefore can reflect user bias, the results can be very informative in making management decisions when detailed guidelines and training have been provided.

Finally, the article says that, “The health of a soil can change over time as a result of use and management, therefore it is crucial to measure soil improvement when implementing new or modifying current management practices. Climate change, particularly the impacts of CO2 and N2 O, can be mitigated through improved soil health management while at the same time building soil resilience.”

Cover crops are an integrated part of the solution, part of moving away from nutrient management to soil health management. See the following management suggestions, again provided by the Ag Sciences folks at Cornell University. For each “constraint” against soil health, there are corresponding short term and long term management suggestions.

For more details on all of these concepts, check out the soil health management manual that Cornell has provided for free.

Cover Crops and Organic Matter

Organic matter, a foundational element of health soil, is the key to plant health and consequently human health. Without organic matter, there would be nothing to feed the myriad forms of life that make up healthy soil.

Cultivation of land leads to extreme loss of organic matter. Midwest crop acreage 150 years ago probably had between 4 and 5 percent organic matter. Some acres today have less than 2 percent. Thankfully, with no-till and cover crops, a healthy percentage of organic matter can be regenerated in a decade of careful application of conservation practices including cover crops.

According to crop scientists like John Biernbaum at Michigan State, there are multiple types of organic matter. First, there is the living part which includes plant roots, earthworms and other insects, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and more, Then there are several “dead” parts of organic matter in various stages of decay. Some forms, like plant leaves, stalks and roots, break down in a matter of weeks to months, while other forms like tree trunks, take decades or longer.

Organic matter, in addition to being the primary source of food for the many forms of life in the soil, is also important for the infiltration and retention of moisture. Researchers tell us that each pound of carbon in the soil can retain up to 40 lbs of water.

Cover crops function in a couple of important ways in this cycle. First, they keep the soil in place, preventing erosion. Next, the roots of cover crops exude sugars that feed life below the surface. Finally, they create channels through which rain and snowmelt get deeper into the soil profile.

For more information about growing cover crops, check out this Management Guide.

Cover Crops Promoted in Film Documentaries

When Hollywood and TV legend Woody Harrelson decides to spend his time and money promoting cover crops and other conservation methods, it’s a sure bet that America is embracing the idea of nurturing the soil from which our food comes.

The 2020 film Kiss the Earth was released last year and is available for streaming on Netflix and Vimeo. One of the “stars” in the film is Ray Archuleta, a career Conservation Agronomist with NRCS

Here’s a link to the movie’s websiite: https://kisstheground.com/?gclid=Cj0KCQjw7pKFBhDUARIsAFUoMDYI5A7UxwS76riX-e6e9GA9Sh_gCPcRrYl1v5njY4c4AwVzCY6hybEaAtssEALw_wcB

Kiss the Ground Film | Official Website

Another documentary called Living Soil, with host Jerry Hatfield, goes into more detail about the components of healthy soil. Hatfield, director of the USDA’s National Lab for Agriculture and the Environment, is free to view on YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntJouJhLM48

And, here’s another one, Dirt, very educational and entertaining, that looks at the importance of fertile soil….and the way we can keep it from becoming barren. In order to watch this, you have to sign up…but watching it is free. https://tubitv.com/movies/312590/dirt-the-movie?start=true

And, given that the Oregon Ryegrass Commission has produced a series of videos about how to grow cover crops successfully, you can click here to see the details. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=klrE48Zve7A

The Germ Seed of Cover Cropping in the US – Part 14

The Chemical in Ryegrass that Crumbles Fragipan

The hunch that annual ryegrass use was breaking down the fragipan at Junior Upton’s farm in Illinois was like music to Lloyd Murdock’s ears. The University of Kentucky (UK) research team had begun to experiment with different chemicals in the greenhouse and field where he worked at the University of Kentucky’s Princeton farm and in the lab on the main campus.

While they waited for results on field plots of annual ryegrass they planted that year, the UK research team began working with the plant in controlled lab and greenhouse environments. They created extracts made from annual ryegrass roots, as well as from the foliage. “Naturally cemented fragipan clods were placed in a solution of annual ryegrass extract. Thirty days later the size and distribution of the remaining aggregates were determined. As the binding agent in the fragipan is dissolved by the chemical, the fragipan clod begins to fall apart. The greater the dissolution of the binding agent, the smaller the remaining aggregates.  Ag related chemicals were also tested but it was annual ryegrass that demonstrated the most significant ability to dissolve the cementing agents biding the fragipan particles,” he said.

Lloyd also made numerous trips to visit Junior’s farm in those years, to authenticate what they were experiencing there, and to apply what was being gleaned. “We’ve known, for example, that some plants do not exert much pressure at the root tip. Annual ryegrass roots tips, on the other hand, exert a high amount of pressure,” Lloyd said. “So those roots will seek out a crack or weak spot in the fragipan and break through there. It doesn’t take many roots getting through to make a difference. And when corn roots follow those same channels the following year, they’re getting access to nutrition and moisture below the fragipan,” he added. The combination of plant chemistry and root pressure has a dramatic effect on fragipan.

The UK team did replicated trials in five Kentucky and Indiana sites. Below, Table 1 shows, in controlled studies, annual ryegrass reduced the thickness of fragipan significantly at each site, allowing more soil depth for crops.

Dave Fischer is a beef producer from Indiana, and it is his Debois County farm mentioned in the table above. Fisher has planted annual ryegrass on his farm for the past eight years. “When I visited his farm last year, I found that he had lowered the fragipan depth by 14 inches and had annual ryegrass roots 29 inches deep,” Lloyd said.

“Those results floored me,” said Fisher in a video on the project. “But at the same time, I had noticed that these fields seemed to not dry out as fast compared to what they used to and to neighboring fields. We were hanging in there a lot longer during drought periods,” he said. “I would plant it just because of the forage, but the addition of breaking up the fragipan has just been super.”

“I’m more excited about this research than any other project I’ve worked on in my 45 years at the University of Kentucky,” Lloyd said in a University news article, “because it can help so many people. It is something that farmers can work into their operations now to increase their yields.”

As he prepared to retire once again, Lloyd said he has been grateful for the Oregon Commission, and others, whose support was crucial for the UK team’s work on annual ryegrass research. “And it looks like others who have noticed our work are picking up where we’ve left off,” he said with a smile. “Claire Phillips, who received her PhD from Oregon State University and has been a soil scientist for the USDA in Iowa for six years, as well as Dr. Dan Olk and Dr. Dana Dinnes are interested in continuing the work we began. And, likewise, John Pike, an agronomist at Southern Illinois University, has also expressed interest in helping to further the research of fragipan and to continue promoting the use of annual ryegrass as a cover crop.”

The Germ Seed of Cover Cropping in the US – Part 13

Annual Ryegrass…When “Breaking Up is Hard to Do”

An “aha” moment began this 14-part series, and it’s fitting we end it with another aha moment!

Dr. Lloyd Murdock has spent many of his productive years at the University of Kentucky as a soils and crop specialist. The link in the previous sentence summarizes a decades long effort that has earned Lloyd a well-deserved reputation as one of America’s “pioneers of no-till agriculture.”

“I had retired in 2012,” Lloyd recalled, “but specifically returned part time the following year to focus research on how to eliminate, or at least reduce, a deep layer of cemented soil called fragipan. Of course, during his career, Lloyd was aware of the seemingly intractable fragipan problem. “But with all the other things I was involved with, I didn’t have enough time. So, when I returned in 2013, I involved a soil chemist, soil pedologist and another agronomist and we set about doing lab, greenhouse and field testing on how to break up that cemented layer.” The breakthrough project is described in a lengthy report published last year by the University of Kentucky.

Fragipan soils are present in almost a third of the US, running from east Texas northeast into New York and parts of New England. In Kentucky alone, it hampers agriculture on 2.7 million acres. Fragipan is almost like bedrock in places, beginning anywhere from 18 to 32 inches below the soil surface. The layer becomes cement-like because of an iron-associated aluminosilicate that binds soil together tightly and restricts water penetration and root growth. Crops grown on these soils have limited soil depth, below which crop roots cannot go. Furthermore, in wet weather, fragipan prevents proper drainage. Topsoil gets saturated and squeezes out oxygen, increases the loss of nitrogen, delays planting, and increases the chances of even more soil compaction with any new tractor traffic.

In the 40 years he was researching and teaching the benefits of no-till, Lloyd said he recalled how people were addressing fragipan. “I was involved in early experiments injecting lime or other chemicals into the pan on 30-inch centers, hoping to break it down,” he said. “I was aware of field trials at other universities using deep mechanical rippers to break up the fragipan.  But in a short time, the soil would reconfigure and harden once again. It was quite expensive and none of it proved effective.”

Then in 2014, through the Oregon Ryegrass Commission, Lloyd was introduced to Mike Plumer, another pioneer in conservation agriculture who had been working on contract to the Commission since the early 2000s. It was he who had begun to quantify the value of annual ryegrass as a cover crop. Inadvertently, at Ralph “Junior” Upton’s farm in southern Illinois, they stumbled on the discovery of annual ryegrass’ deep roots. And in the process, they saw how ryegrass roots seemed to be growing into the fragipan on Junior’s compacted acreage.

“Everything happened by accident,” Junior said. “When I started, I only had about 5 inches of topsoil before I would hit the fragipan. I was trying to get through dry weather. I got a grant and started studying no-till and cover crops. Then a representative of Oregon Ryegrass Commission asked me to try annual ryegrass as a cover crop.”

“They’d stumbled onto something really big,” Lloyd said. “Thankfully, Mike and Junior kept good records on their annual ryegrass work. They found that after a few years, the corn production on the acres Junior planted annual ryegrass began to outproduce fields without it. When they started tracking progress on those fields in the early 2000s, he and Mike determined that Junior’s acreage was producing 10 to 20 bushels per acre less than the average in that county. Today, those same acres are producing 40 bushels per acre more than the county average.

The Germ Seed of Cover Crop Adoption in the US – Part 12

Cover Crop Adoption – Expanding Geometrically as Knowledge Expands Exponentially

“Planting annual ryegrass in the fall and seeing nothing come up is greatly disappointing,” said Jamie Scott, a 3rd generation Indiana farmer. “At first, cover crop experts chalked it up to planting too late, for example, or not enough fall rain to germinate the crop, or winterkill – getting frozen out in a harsh winter. That was in the early 2000s,” he added. “That was back when there was still a lot to learn about cover crops. And we’re still learning.”

By 2010, after extensive field trials and research, agronomists discovered that there could be residual herbicide in the field that prevented cover crops from taking root. “We would spray herbicides on fields in the fall to control winter annuals,” said Jamie, now a 20-year veteran of cover crop use. “And by the end of the winter, the effectiveness would have lapsed. But companies have come out with longer lasting herbicides that will keep weeds down for a year,” he added. “That’s great if you want the lasting effect, but it’s a problem if you plan to use a cover crop the following year.”(Check out this flyer)

Jamie is among a growing number of Midwest farmers who have expertise on how to successfully manage cover crops. After their first year, trying it out on three fields, the Scotts went all in, and now no-till and cover crop their entire 2000 acres. He has helped to pioneer aerial application of cover crop seeds, after experiencing how difficult it is to consistently get a cover crop planted after fall harvest.

“In our second year with cover crops, we tried a variety of planting methods. The third year, with a lot of advice from Mike Plumer and Dan Towery, we were putting the seed on with aircraft. We flew it on prior to harvest and thus gained weeks on the planting date. We tried using a helicopter one year, but shortly realized its shortcomings,” he continued. “We were trying to save a few pennies per load and ended up losing dollars on the other end.”

As the years went by, the knowledge about when and how to fly on seed kept growing, and Jamie has presented to national audiences with details needed to get started. As a result, Jamie started a side business – Scott’s Cover Crops LLC – in order to help other growers who now wanted seed applied earlier in the fall. “At the start, it didn’t really interfere too much with our farming operation,” Jamie said, “and my dad handled that for a month while I organized the cover crop application for customers.”

“But now it’s become almost a year-round business,” he explained. “As a turnkey operation, I manage the seed mix purchase and delivery, the aerial application and the termination of it in the spring,” he said, “and among the clients I’ve got in my cell phone, you’re looking at more than 100,000 acres.” That amounts to over 400 farmers in Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan.

Jamie is enthusiastic in terms of describing the changes in the industry in his lifetime. “I compare what happens to an individual who doesn’t care for themselves to that of the ag industry,” he said. “When I get to racing around during a busy time and I don’t eat right, I’m gonna pay for it. If I do that year after year, I run a higher and higher risk for some kind of health scare – heart attack or cancer, for example. Well, the same is true for farming. We’ve run up against a health scare, in which we’ve run down the quality of the soil and polluted the water and air in the process.”

In addition to his work in the field, Jamie has also been active as a cover crop educator, attending trade shows and introducing newcomers to cover crops, just as he was introduced 20 years ago. He is also the Chairman of his county’s Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD), as well as being Vice-President of the statewide association of SWCDs. In that work over the past years, he has continued to learn about the partnerships that have formed to better protect the precious resources. Two in particular that he has worked with: Bob Barr, a scientist working for the Center for Earth and Environmental Sciences, and Jennifer Tank, PhD, Director of Notre Dame University’s Environmental Change Initiative. “Those people, and their universities, are helping all of us to understand the value of capturing carbon in the soil, keeping nutrients in the field, and thus improving the quality of watersheds that  eventually feed the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico.”

The Germ Seed of Cover Crop Adoption in the US – Part 11

One Helping Hand Deserves Another

Jamie Scott, a 3rd generation Indiana farmer now in his mid-40s, grew up having heard about no-till and cover crops from his dad and grandad. As you may have read in earlier posts, no-till was barely on Midwest farmers’ radar screen in the 1980s, and cover cropping was even more of a rarity.

The Scotts had not adopted the practice vigorously at that time, and conventional tillage still ruled the day on their farm and most others farms as well. Nonetheless, the Scotts were not averse to it, which made a big difference. “My granddad would hand-sow clover or plant cereal rye with a spreader after harvest on certain plots,” Jamie said. “And I remember my dad telling me about his buying the farm next door in 1976. The previous owner, like my grandad, had also used cover crops. My dad was amazed to learn the difference between that neighbor’s fields and some of ours. Where he had consistently used cover crops, the organic matter was at or just above 4.0, compared to tilled acreage like ours which in places was as low as 2.5. That got my dad’s attention!”

It wasn’t until after attending a couple of ag conferences in 2002, though, that Jamie and his dad began to get serious with no-till and cover crops on their 2000 acres northwest of Fort Wayne. He visited the Oregon Ryegrass booth at the National No-Till Conference that year, and the Farm Machinery Show in Louisville, talking with Oregon grass seed growers Larry Venell and Don Wirth. “They were skeptical that I would be able get annual ryegrass to winter over that far north,” Jamie chuckled. “Back then, they thought annual ryegrass wouldn’t stand up to winter weather much north of I-70,” he added, “and we’re 125 miles north of there! One of the things that was helpful at the time was that they didn’t try to cover up what they didn’t know about ryegrass as a cover crop and how to manage it in this environment.”

Jamie Scott, Indiana farmer and cover crop advisor – https://www.no-tillfarmer.com/articles/7463-no-tiller-discusses-rotation-and-cover-crop-strategies

Fast forward to 2021. The entire Scott farm acreage is in no-till and cover crops. Jamie has become a regional expert on cover crops and oversees application and management of cover crop seed on more than 100,000 acres a year in his area. “If it weren’t for the Oregon Commission, and guys like Mike Plumer and Dan Towery to help me out, I probably wouldn’t be working with cover crops at all,” he said. “Their knowledge and willingness to come out to work through it with me was crucial.”

Their first year, after the corn and beans had come off the fields, Jamie and his dad Jim put in about 40 acres of annual ryegrass. “In that first year, the seed had three varieties in the same bag,” he said, “and this was before they had figured out which varieties were the hardiest. So, our results were mixed,” he added. “One corn field looked great, another was so-so, and the bean field we planted too late with annual ryegrass looked like nothing happened at all. But, the next spring, it turned out that even in the bean field, the ryegrass had sent out a lot of roots and we got benefits without much top growth. And in each of those fields, production was improved over fields where no cover crops were planted. We were sold after that,” he said. “In fact, I was driving by the bean field with an agronomist the following year, and he noticed without my saying anything that the beans where annual ryegrass had been planted looked greener and healthier.”

“I’ve come to understand that as stresses increase, like droughts, the greater are the benefits of cover crops,” Jamie added. “Take for example the deep rooting of annual ryegrass. It creates root channels that are used by corn plants to access moisture far deeper than otherwise. In dry years the difference in yield between cover-cropped acres and those in conventional tillage is remarkable.”

“The knowledge we lost in the 20th Century about no-till and cover crops is coming back,” Jamie continued. “After generations of nothing but deeper and deeper tillage, we’re becoming more conservation-minded as an industry. We’ve come to appreciate the connection between cover crops, soil health and crop production. On our property, we’ve gradually built the organic matter back up, and it has more than paid for itself in healthier soil and better production.